A Simple Proof of a 400-Year Old Theorem about Numbers

Sometimes the simplest proofs give the best insights into how mathematicians think

Fermat’s Little Theorem is a beautiful number-theoretic result which states that, for any integer a and any prime number p, aᵖ﹣a is divisible by p. For example, if a = 4 and p = 3 then aᵖ﹣a = 60 which is divisible by 3.



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Keith McNulty

Expert and Author in Applied Mathematics, Data Science, Statistics. Also writes History, Science, Culture. Find me on Twitter or keithmcnulty.org